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Dating archaeological materials

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After the war he became very interested in peaceful applications of atomic science.He and two students first measured the "half-life" of radiocarbon.

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"Everything which has come down to us from heathendom is wrapped in a thick fog; it belongs to a space of time we cannot measure.After twice that time (about 11000 years), another half of that remaining amount will have disappeared.After another 5568 years, again another half will have disappeared.The relative dating method worked very well, but only in sites which were had a connection to the relative scale. When radiocarbon dating was developed, it revolutionised archaeology, because it enabled them to more confidently date the past, and to build a more accurate picture of the human past.The archaeologist Colin Renfrew (1973) called it the development of this dating method 'the radiocarbon revolution' in describing its great impact upon the human sciences.You can work out that after about 50 000 years of time, all the radiocarbon will have gone.

Therefore, radiocarbon dating is not able to date anything older than 60 or 70 000 years old.

Rasmus Nyerup's quote reminds us of the tremendous scientific advances which have taken place in the 20th century.

In Nyerup's time, archaeologists could date the past only by using recorded histories, which in Europe were based mainly on the Egyptian calendar.

In the 1940s, scientists succeeded in finding out how long it takes for radiocarbon to disappear, or decay, from a sample of carbon from a dead plant or animal.

Willard Libby, the principal scientist, had worked in the team making the nuclear bomb during World War 2, so he was an expert in nuclear and atomic chemistry.

We know that it is older than Christendom, but whether by a couple of years or a couple of centuries, or even by more than a millenium, we can do no more than guess." [Rasmus Nyerup, (Danish antiquarian), 1802 (in Trigger, 19)].